Other writers give far larger numbers, ranging from 200,000 to 500,000 according to al-Mas'udi.a[›][14] Unlike earlier campaigns, which did not go far beyond attacking the forts of the frontier zone, this expedition was intended to penetrate deep into Asia Minor and exact vengeance. Arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as Ammuriye. By 829, when the young emperor Theophilos ascended the Byzantine throne, the Byzantines and Arabs had been fighting sporadically for almost two centuries. The next day Afshin with his troops attacked the breach, and Itakh on the day after. The city itself never recovered from the sack, but retained an active bishopric until definitively conquered by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The 42 Martyrs of Amorium (Greek: οἰ ἅγιοι μβ′ μάρτυρες τοῦ Ἀμορίου) were a group of Eastern Roman senior officials taken prisoner by the Abbasid Caliphate in the Sack of Amorium in 838 and executed in 845, after refusing to convert to Islam. The Abbasids penetrated deep into Byzantine-held Asia Minor, while the northern army defeated the Byzantine forces under Theophilos at Anzen. 43–67. When the young emperor, Theophilus (r. 829–842), heard about the sack of Amorium -- his hometown, chosen by the caliph for that very reason, to make the sting hurt all the more -- he fell ill and died three years later, aged 28, reportedly from sorrow. [10][11] Theophilos's campaign was unable, however, to save Babak and his followers, who in late 837 were forced from their mountain strongholds by the general Afshin. Amorion, Blick auf die Oberstadt.jpg 5,472 × 2,852; 4.77 MB. Some scholars, like Bury and Treadgold, accept the figures of Tabari and Michael the Syrian as more or less accurate,[56] but other modern researchers are sceptical of such numbers, as medieval field armies were rarely more than 10,000 men strong, and both Byzantine and Arab military treatises and accounts suggest that armies usually numbered around 4,000–5,000. [50][51], In reality, the military impact on Byzantium was limited: outside the garrison and population of Amorium itself, the Byzantine field army at Anzen seems to have suffered few casualties, and the revolt of the Khurramite corps was suppressed without bloodshed the next year and its soldiers reintegrated into the Byzantine army. A History of Medicine: In the s Abbasid Caliphate started military excursions culminating with a victory in the Sack of Amorium. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. The city was first attacked by Muʿāwiy… In the 830s Abbasid Caliphate started military excursions culminating with a victory in the Sack of Amorium. Amorium is an archaeological site in ancient Phrygia, part of central western Anatolia.It is located at the modern Turkish village of Hisarköy, near Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar. The caliphal court was outraged by the brutality and brazenness of the raids: not only had the Byzantines acted in open collusion with the Khurramite rebels, but during the sack of Sozopetra—which some sources claim as Mu'tasim's own birthplaceb[›]—all male prisoners were executed and the rest sold into slavery, and some captive women were raped by Theophilos's Khurramites. Umayyad invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople. a text document about the sack of amorium Bring your club to Amazon Book Clubs, start a new book club and invite your friends to join, or find a club that’s right for you for free. The two forces would link up at Ancyra, before marching jointly on Amorium. [47][48] The fall of Amorium inspired several legends and stories among the Byzantines, and can be traced in surviving literary works such as the Song of Armouris or the ballad Kastro tis Orias ("Castle of the Fair Maiden"). You're listening to a sample of the Audible audio edition. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where they arrived on 1 August. The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes Continuatus mentions 70,000 dead, while the Arab al-Mas'udi records 30,000. Sack of Amorium: August 838 Amorium: 30,000–70,000: Abbasid Caliphate Byzantines Battle of Levounion: 29 April 1091 Enez: tens of thousands: Byzantine Empire & Cumans Pechenegs The Pechenegs consisting of 80,000 warriors and their families invaded the Byzantine Empire. Although less well known than some Anatolian sites, it is Amorium's significance as a major settlement after the Roman period that makes it so important. Amorium was systematically destroyed, never to recover its former prosperity. At first, according to al-Tabari, catapults manned by four men each were placed on wheeled platforms, and mobile towers with ten men each were constructed and advanced to the edge of the moat, which they began to fill with sheep skins (from the animals they had brought along as food) filled with earth. "Mise au point sur Théophobe et l'alliance de Babek avec Théophile (833/834-839/840)" (in French). Babak fled to Armenia, but was betrayed to the Abbasids and died of torture. Sack of Amorium آموران (به یونانی : Ἀμόριον ‎ آموریون ؛ در منابع اسلامی عموریه ) شهری فریگی در آسیای صغیر است که در دوران هلنی برپا شد و پس از حمله معتصم عباسی در سال Û¸Û³Û¸ ویران گشت. When the young emperor, Theophilus (r. 829–842), heard about the sack of Amorium—his hometown, chosen by the caliph for that very reason, to make the sting hurt all the more—he fell ill and died three years later, aged 28, reportedly from sorrow. آموریونون یاغمالانماسی (اینگیلیسجه: Sack of Amorium) عباسی خلافتی و بیزانس ایمپیراتورلوغو قوشونو آراسیندا باش وئرن دؤیوش.بیزانس - عرب ساواش‌لارینین بیر قیسمی‌دیر. Later the Abbasid Caliphate responded by sending their troops into Anatolia again, sacking and marauding until they were eventually annihilated by the Byzantines in 863. The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars.The Abbasid campaign was led personally by the Caliph al-Mu'tasim (reigned 833–842), in retaliation to a virtually unopposed expedition launched by the Byzantine emperor Theophilos (r. 829–842) into the Caliphate's borderlands the previous year. Despite initial success, the Byzantine army broke and scattered, while Theophilos with his guard were encircled and barely managed to break through and escape. Amorium is the latinized pronunciation of its original Greek name Amorion (Greek: Ἀμόριον). In retaliation, Mu'tasim, after separating the most prominent among them, executed the rest, some 6,000 in number. For a detailed survey, see Whittow 1996, pp. [17], The caliph divided his force in two: a detachment of 10,000 Turks under Afshin was sent to join forces with the Emir Omar al-Aqta and Armenian troops from Vaspurakan and invade the Armeniac Theme from the Pass of Hadath, while the main army under the caliph himself would invade Cappadocia through the Cilician Gates. ( 英语 : Battle of Lalakaon ) Bathys Ryax ( 英语 : Battle of Bathys Ryax ) 西西里和南意大利. His army included men from the Anatolian and possibly also the European themes, the elite tagmata regiments, as well as the Khurramites. Ancyra was quickly rebuilt and reoccupied, as was Amorium itself, although it never recovered its former glory and the seat of the Anatolic theme was for a time transferred to Polybotus. According to al-Tabari, Mu'tasim now pondered extending his campaign to attack Constantinople, when news reached him of a rebellion headed by his nephew, al-Abbas ibn al-Ma'mun. Amorium was strongly fortified and garrisoned, but a traitor revealed a weak spot in the wall, where the Abbasids concentrated their attack, effecting a breach. The Siege and Sack of Amorium The political situation of the Empire was often unsettled in the best of times. [13] A huge Arab army gathered at Tarsus; according to the most reliable account, that of Michael the Syrian, it numbered some 80,000 men with 30,000 servants and camp followers and 70,000 pack animals. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Excavations began in 1988 under the direction of Professor R. Martin Harrison from the University of Oxford with the intention of investigating the size and nature of the Byzantine city (sixth–eleventh century). There was an error retrieving your Wish Lists. When the young emperor, Theophilus (r. 829-842), heard about the sack of Amorium--his hometown, chosen by the caliph for that very reason, to make the sting hurt all the more--he fell ill and died three years later, aged 28, reportedly from sorrow. From there they were taken, probably towards the end of the century, and installed at al-Raqqah, where they remained until 964, when the Hamdanid ruler Sayf al-Dawla had them removed and incorporated in the Bab al-Qinnasrin gate in his capital Aleppo. [23][24] The caliph's vanguard under Ashinas reached Ancyra on 26 July. According to the legend of the 42 Martyrs, he converted to Islam, but was nevertheless executed by the caliph alongside the other captives; unlike the others, however, whose bodies "miraculously" floated in the water of the river Tigris, his sank to the bottom. Its strategic location in central Asia Minor made the city a vital stronghold against the armies of the Arab Caliphate following the Muslim conquest of the Levant. Even during the phase of continuous Byzantine military expansion in the late 10th century, Byzantine military manuals mention armies of 25,000 as exceptionally large and fit to be led by the emperor in person. al-Mu'tasim was born in 794 to Harun al-Rashid. Mu'tasim set out with his army a day's march along the road in the direction of Dorylaion, but encountered no sign of a Byzantine attack. [47][52] According to the assessment of Warren Treadgold, the imperial army's defeats at Anzen and Amorium were to a large degree the result of circumstance rather than actual incapability or inadequacy. This had the added benefit of confirming the presence of a widespread and consistent destruction layer that should probably be associated with a major historical event, namely the siege and sack of Amorium in 838. It was situated on the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. Ashinas sent out many scouting detachments to take captives, and from them finally learned of Theophilos's presence at the Halys, where he awaited the Arab approach to give battle. The great city of Amorium in particular was the intended prize. [23][25][26], The Arab army marched in three separate corps, with Ashinas once again in front, the caliph in the middle, and Afshin bringing up the rear. He left his post which allowed the Arabs to take advantage, enter the city and capture it. It is rich in Byzantine archaeology, especially for the period between the early ninth and the late eleventh centuries. When they refused, they were executed at Samarra on 6 March 845, and are celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the 42 Martyrs of Amorium. Please try again. Work also continued in the Lower City Church. The surviving population were divided as slaves among the army leaders, except for the city's military and civic leaders, who were reserved for the caliph's disposal. March 6th, 2016 Headsman. Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. [16] Due to its strategic importance, the city had been a frequent target of Arab attacks in the 7th and 8th centuries, and Mu'tasim's predecessor Ma'mun was said to be planning to attack the city when he died in 833. March 6 is the feast date of the 42 Martyrs of Amorium, the day in the year 845 when they submitted to the caliphate’s executioners in preference to conversion.. Media in category "Sack of Amorium" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. [45], Excerpt from Abu Tammam's Ode on the Conquest of Amorium. [46], "A victory in honour of which the gates of heaven open and earth comes forth in her new garments.O day of the battle of 'Ammūriya, (our) hopes have returned from you overflowing with honey-sweet milk;You have left the fortunes of the sons of Islam in the ascendant, and the polytheists and the abode of polytheism in decline. [38][39], Among the captured Byzantine magnates of Amorium, the strategos Aetios was executed soon after his capture, perhaps, as the historian Warren Treadgold suggests, in retaliation to Theophilos's second letter to the caliph. The Byzantines, some of whom were soldiers who had fled from Anzen, informed the Arabs of Afshin's victory, after which Malik allowed all of them to go free. The Byzantines then counter-attacked and sacked Damietta in Egypt. al-Mu'tasim (794-842) was the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 833 to 842, succeeding al-Ma'mun and preceding al-Wathiq. Luckily for the Empire, Theophobos maintained a passive stance and made no move to confront Theophilos or join Mu'tasim. Troparion - Tone 4 Your forty-two holy martyrs, O Lord, [19][20], With the rest of his army, Theophilos then marched to interpose himself between the Cilician Gates and Ancyra, camping on the north bank of the river Halys, close to one of the major river crossings. [22][23] Theophilos quickly began regrouping his forces and sent the general Theodore Krateros to Ancyra. Its ruins and höyük ('mound, tumulus') are located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy, 13 kilometers east of the district center, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. as a parallel to Amorium, the likely birthplace of Theophilos, and as a deliberate attempt to balance and lessen the impact of the latter's fall. The Byzantine commander Boiditzes, however, who was in charge of the breach section, decided to conduct direct negotiations with the caliph on his own, probably intending to betray his own post. Krateros found the city completely deserted, and was ordered to reinforce the garrison of Amorium instead. [44] Several tales also sprung up around Boiditzes and his betrayal. Sack of Amorium‎ (5 F) Media in category "Amorium" The following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total. Discover elegant stackable rings, heart necklaces, rose gold ear … Leaving a part of his army under a relative to watch the crossings of the Halys, Theophilos immediately departed with most of his army, some 40,000 men according to Michael the Syrian, to confront the smaller Arab force. The Arab advance was slow and cautious. Rekaya, M. (1977). [36] Among the spoils taken were the massive iron doors of the city, which al-Mu'tasim initially transported to Samarra, where they were installed at the entrance of his palace. The conquest of Amorium was not only a major military disaster and a heavy personal blow for Theophilos, but also a traumatic event for the Byzantines, its impact resonating in later literature. ", The sack of Amorium was one of the most devastating events in the long history of Arab raids into Anatolia. There's a problem loading this menu right now. The Arab chronicles record that Mu'tasim asked his advisors to name the "most inaccessible and strongest" Byzantine fortress, and they named Amorium, "where no Muslim has gone since the appearance of Islam. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. Brussels. [49] Arabs on the other hand celebrated the capture of Amorium, which became the subject of Abu Tammam's famous Ode on the Conquest of Amorium. The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. After allowing Theophilos's envoys to return to him with the news of Amorium's fall, Mu'tasim burned the city to the ground, with only the city walls surviving relatively intact. The caliph, however, not only refused to parley, but detained the envoys in his camp, so that they could observe the siege. [54], The most long-term result of the fall of Amorium, however, was in the religious rather than in the military sphere. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. 101–103.^ b: The claim that Sozopetra or Arsamosata was Mu'tasim's native city is found only in Byzantine sources. This claim is dismissed by most scholars as a later invention, i.e. [18][19] On the Byzantine side, Theophilos was soon made aware of the caliph's intentions, and set out from Constantinople in early June. Anxious to avoid an ambush and learn the emperor's whereabouts, Mu'tasim forbade Ashinas to advance too deeply into Cappadocia. The named reference Karlin-Heyer 24 was invoked but never defined see the help page. [32] The Byzantine defenders were gradually worn down by the constant assaults, and after about two weeks of siege (the date is variously interpreted as 12, 13 or 15 August by modern writers[33]) Aetios sent an embassy under the city's bishop, offering to surrender Amorium in exchange for safe passage of the inhabitants and garrison, but Mu'tasim refused. The city was fortified by the emperor Zeno in the 5th century, but did not rise to prominence until the 7th century. ISSN, http://books.google.com/books?id=Nw84AAAAIAAJ, http://www.archive.org/details/ahistoryeastern00burygoog, http://books.google.com/books?id=YQ5DYgEACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=OVyjQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=3oCI8BVxcB8C&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q&f=false, "Campaign of the Arabs in Asia Minor, 838", http://books.google.com/books?id=3TysAAAAIAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=jlTPAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=bFh-ASmKksYC, The Amorium Excavations Project – 25 Years of Archaeology: 1987-2012, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia. [28], The Arabs now launched repeated attacks on the breach, but the defenders held firm. Unable to break through the besieging army, the commander of the breached section privately attempted to negotiate with the Caliph. He sought to bolster his regime and support his religious policies by military success against the Abbasid Caliphate, the Empire's major antagonist. While Boiditzes parleyed with the caliph, the Arabs came closer to the breach, and at a signal charged and broke into the city. [12], With the Khurramite threat over, the caliph began marshalling his forces for a reprisal campaign against Byzantium. Although his generals advised evacuation of the city, with the intention of rendering the Arabs' campaign objective void and keeping the Byzantine army undivided, Theophilos decided to reinforce the city's garrison, with Aetios the strategos of the Anatolics, and men from the tagmata of the Excubitors and the Vigla. Theophilos was an ambitious man and also a convinced adherent of Byzantine Iconoclasm, which prohibited the depiction of divine figures and the veneration of icons. Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. Amorium: A Byzantine City in Anatolia - An Archaeological Guide (Homer Archaeological Guides) Chris Lightfoot, Mucahide Lightfoot. It was also the birthplace of Theophilos's father, Michael II the Amorian (r. 820–829), and perhaps of Theophilos himself. At the time, Amorium was one of the largest cities in the Byzantine Empire, ranking in importance immediately after Constantinople. They are commemorated … Mu'tasim learned of Theophilos's departure from captives and tried to warn Afshin, but the emperor was faster and met Afshin's army in the Battle of Anzen on the plain of Dazimon on 22 July. At this time, Arab attacks resumed both in the east, where after almost twenty years of peace due to the Abbasid civil war Caliph al-Ma'mun (r. 813–833) launched several large-scale raids, and in the west, where the gradual Muslim conquest of Sicily was under way since 827. 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sack of amorium

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